The Main Association of Marine Cultivated Fishery (BBPBL) of Lampung, located in Yos Sudarso Street, Hanura Village, Padang Cermin Sub-district, Pesawaran District, Lampung, is an association established by the Directorate General of Fishery based on the Decree of the President of the Republic of Indonesia No. 23 Year 1982 and the Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture No. 437/Kpts/Um/7/1982. This institution was originally established as the Association of Marine Cultivation (BBL) of Lampung. Thanks to the many achievements in developing marine cultivated fish technology in Indonesia, as of February 2014, this institution has become the Main Association of Marine Cultivated Fishery (BBPBL).
The Main Association of Marine Cultivated Fishery (BBPBL) of Lampung has successfully cultivated various commodities which has become a weapon of export of Indonesia aside from shrimps. Those commodities are divided into two categories:
1. Finned fish such as the White Snapper (Lates calcarifer), Red Snapper (Lutjanus johni), Snubnose Pompano (Trachinotus blochii), Giant Grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), Humpback Grouper (Cromileptes altivelis), Brown-Marbled Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus), Spotted Coral Grouper (Plectropomus maculatus), Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), and Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris).
2. Finless fish such as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra), Seahorse (Hippocampus kuda), Abalone (Haliostis asinina supertaxa), and Algae (Gracillaria sp, Kapahycus alvarezii).
According to the Head of BBPBL Lampung, Mimid Abdul Hamid, of all the commodity types being developed, the superior ones are the white snapper, cobia, and snub-nosed pompano. BBPBL Lampung has successfully mass-produced the white snapper, cobia, and snub-nosed pompano, and has even developed a cultivation pattern for the vannamei shrimp in a floating marine cage.
The said commodities have been successfully cultivated in BBPBL Lampung with satisfactory results due to the implementation of certification program of Proper Fish Cultivation Method (CBIB) and Proper Fish Seeding Method (CPIB) to succeed in seeding and cultivation, as stated by the Head of Technical Implementation and Coordination Testing Division of BBPBL Lampung, Evalawati, SP.,MM. This is proven in the year 2015, where during the Technical Work Meeting (Rakernis) in Bogor, in regards to marine cultivation technology, BBPBL Lampung was ranked as 2nd best labor achievement of all UPT DJPB.
“Actually, we still did not know what the indicators of that achievement were. But starting from 2013, we routinely do quarter Main Performance Indicator (IKU). We report achievement levels in comparison to the IKU target. Maybe the assessment is based on the IKU,” Eva added.
The achievement of BBPBL Lampung was made possible by the support of the skilled and qualified human resources, the implementation of CBIB and CPIB programs, and also the availability of complete tools and facilities such as the Main Tub, Hatchery, Nursery Ward, Floating Marine Cage, Fish Health Testing Laboratory, Water Quality Testing Laboratory, Natural Feed Laboratory, Decorative Fish Laboratory, Nutrition Laboratory, and the Way Muli Installation. In addition, BBPBL Lampung always establishes cooperation with other parties, including private parties, Marine and Fishery Departments from other districts, Universities, and other Institutions.
Recently, BBPBL Lampung has added another achievement, a new commodity in the world of cultivated fishery developed by the Indonesian government. That new commodity is a type of red snapper, Taiwanese strain (Lutjanus Malabaricus), which is an innovation of UPT BBPBL Lampung. As a new innovation, this new type of commodity has gone through mass-seeding. The development is now under full monitoring by the Ministry of Marine and Fishery (KKP).
In regards to the success in developing the new innovation of Taiwanese strain red snapper, the head of BBPBL Lampung, Mimid Abdul Hamid, stated, that fish do has certain advantages compared to other types of fish. The advantages include relatively fast growth rate, higher tolerance towards the environment such as salinity and temperature and turbidity, responsive to synthetic feed, resistant to diseases, and low cannibalism rate.
As a new commodity, Mimid explained that the cultivating technique for red snapper larvae adopts the technology used in cultivating white snapper and grouper larvae. This technique yields good results because the fish has higher growth rate compared to white snapper and other types of red snapper. “This assessment is based on the observation of Taiwanese strain red snapper seed cultivation, from nursery phase up to 60 days (2 months) of rearing,” she said.
Mimid explained that those advantages can be seen from the growth period, that within the same amount of time, the result is better. While other types of snapper only gained 3-4 grams of weight within 60 days, this Taiwanese strain red snapper can reach 12 grams (7cm long).
“Our team has successfully passed the critical phase in the seeding stage, that is the larvae nurturing stage with SR (survival rate) up to 10%, which is highest compared to other types of red snapper which can only reach up to 7% SR,” she stated.
The success of fish cultivation in BBPBL Lampung is surely due to good cultivation methods in the cultivation technique they developed. Mimid explained, of the three steps of cultivation (nursery, batching, rearing), almost all of them are done at sea.
The rearing activity is an initial step in the chain of seeding activity. Therefore, egg production relies heavily on the availability of the potential parent fish, both in terms of quantity and quality. Before spawning, the potential parent fish must first go through selection process. The selected parents preferably have no defects, have whole scales, and without any wound on the body and fins. Spawning will produce fish eggs, and the eggs to be hatched must be of good quality because the nurturing of the larva is the main part of fish seeding business.
The nurturing of larva includes tub preparation, feeding with live or synthetic feed, and water quality management as the nurturing media. The nursery stage is done on land using a controlled tub, or at sea, using nets with a size of 1x1x1.5m. In order to lower cost, some of the nursery process is now also done in floating marine cages which do not need water wheel and pump. During nursery, the seeds are given synthetic feed with additional vitamin and multivitamin. The next stage is seed batching from the result of nursery, done at sea using nets with mesh size 0.75-1 inch. The last stage of fish rearing is the growing of seeds that have undergone batching stage. The growing stage is done in a marine cage with net size 3x3x3m. All growing and parent nurturing process, as long as standard preparations, are done in floating marine cages centralized at Lampung Bay area, Hanura Village, Padang Cermin Sub-district, Pesawaran District, which is about 100 meter away from the beach shore location of the association.
The floating marine cage used must be standardized. BBPBL Lampung uses domestically made marine cage that can match foreign products in quality. BBPBL Lampung trusts only in floating marine cages manufactured by PT Gani Arta Dwitunggal factory in Bandung, with the brand Aquatec, which is the only domestically made modern marine cage with reliable quality. According to Mimid, there are numerous advantages of marine cage made of HDPE, such as, it uses knotless nets which minimalize the risk of the fish rubbing its body to the nets. In addition, HDPE material has longer technical lifetime, which is up to 25 years, and is environmentally friendly. The Head of the Association stated that only Aquatec marine cage has good quality and sturdy construction that can withstand ocean waves and is easy to set. marine cage Aquatec is made of pipes, which makes it easier to clean from parasitic organisms such as barnacles. The Planner of Material Standardization of BBPBL Lampung, Drs. Hidayat Adi Sarwono, M.Sc., stated, “The benefits of using Aquatec marine cage is highly significant for BBPBL Lampung because it simplifies cultivation activities, starting from fish rearing (for consumption) to parent fish development.
The success of seeding technology engineering done by BBPBL Lampung has indirectly supported the growth of new economical resources through the mid-low businesses established by the people. That fact is because the growth of mass production of Taiwanese strain red snapper in household hatchery scales (HSRT) continually increases.
According to Mimid Abdul Hamid, currently in Lampung alone, six HSRT has started producing Taiwanese strain red snapper seeds. Each of those HSRT is able to produce seeds with average of 72,000 fish per year with average seed size of 7cm.
One of the HSRT owners in Putus Cape, Pesawaran District, Krisna, revealed that the success of Taiwanese strain red snapper seeding will help the initially unproductive seeders. “With the introduction of this new type of fish, initially less productive HSRT can get re-optimized, especially since the demand for seeds keeps increasing.” Up to this point, in Lampung alone, at least 13 groups of fish cultivators has started cultivating Taiwanese strain red snapper. That number is predicted to keep increasing due to the responses of the people which consider this commodity as a promising new business alternative.
For the seed production in BBPBL Lampung, Mimid stated that the current capacity can reach a minimum of 15,000 fish per month. This number meets the demand for seeds in Lampung, and also the growing interest of other regions such as Riau, Bali, Situbondo, Seribu Islands, and Maluku. Aside from to meet the demands of HSRT, Mimid said that the seed availability also supports the floating marine cage revitalization program, which has now become a KKP priority in order to optimize the utilization of national marine cultivation potentials.
“The success of this Taiwanese strain red snapper development has increased the optimism that in the future, marine cultivation will be able to boost the fishery sector contribution to national economy,” he concluded.